WHAT IS PERSONALITY?
Ilyenkov E.V., (1924—1979), PhD, professor, Philosophy Institute, Academy of Science USSR
The new reprint of the article by outstanding Soviet philosopher, confined to the 200 anniversary of the birth of Karl Marx, contains an elaborate-nuanced commentary on the famous Marx thesis, prefaced with the editorial preamble: «The essence of a person is not an abstract inherent in each individual. In reality, it is the aggregate (ensemble) of all social relations». First published in 1979, the article by E.V. Ilyenkov was already reproduced by the editors of the magazine — in № 11–12 for 2004, after the publication (in № 9–10 for the same year) of the article by Y.Ya. Olszewicz «Economic theory and psychogenetics», where author tried to use the latest (breakthrough) achievements of genetic science to confirm the notorious thesis of the dual (biosocial) nature of humans. Affirming the Marxist discourse about its purely social essence, E.V. Ilyenkov insisted that biomorphology, including subtle genetic structures, is absolutely necessary prerequisite, but not an informative component of human personality, psyche or «soul». If we deny this, we change dialectical materialist positions in social science to biological determinism, which is not harmless, but fraught with racist conclusions and naturalistic apologetics of the existing (capitalist) social and economic system. The editorial preamble contains some considerations regarding the relevance of the Marxist dialectical-materialist reflections of E.V. Ilyenkov on the personality problem and the necessity of new reprint of his article.
K. Marks, personality, essence of a person, social essence of a person, biosocial essence of a person, materialistic concept of a person, materialistic psychology, genetics, psychogenetics, human biomorphology.
GDP AS AN INDICATOR OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: PROBLEMS OF MEASUREMENT AND USE
Grishin V.I., ScD (Economics), Professor, Rector of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
Ustyuzhanina E.V., ScD (Economics), Professor, Head of the Department of Economic Theory, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
Komarova I.P., PhD (Economics), Associate Professor at the Department of Economics, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
The article focuses on the analysis of problems that arise in the process of usage of the gross domestic product as the indicator of the national economic development. The study reveals the main shortcomings of the methodology for the calculation of this indicator, discusses the complexities and limitations of its application as a key macroeconomic indicator. Special attention is paid not only to the shortcomings of the GDP calculation technology, but also to the economic contradictions associated with its application. High GDP growth rates do not always indicate high efficiency of the country’s economic activity. The article concludes that it is necessary to expand the range of indicators used to measure the level of the national economic development as well as to improve the methodology for assessing the gross domestic product.
Gross domestic product, economic growth, flows, stocks, value added, production, purchasing power parity, imputed income, consumption, quality of life.
FORM OF THE FUTURE AND ECOLOGICAL IMPERATIVES OF ITS EMBODIMENT IN THE NEW POLITICAL CYCLE
Startsev A.A., PhD (Economics) received at the International University of Fundamental Studies within Oxford educational network, director of the International Centre for the promotion of the implementation of UNIDO’s programmes and projects under Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, UNIDO International expert
The article describes contemporary world that is currently caught in an overall crisis (system failure of the development), industrial society of extended capital is stuck up at the «limits of growth». It gives a reference to a Club of Rome 2017 report «Come on! Capitalism, short-termism, population and the destruction of the planet», which was confined to the half century jubilee of the organization. The main conclusion based on the newest results of the fundamental science is that the environment of the planet has lost its stability and is collapses swiftly (the balance between technosphere and biosphere is broken). This conclusion follows from the Concept of biotic regulation of the environment (developed by Russian scientists in mid 90ties). The concept provides scientifically based quantitative evaluation of the stabilizing impact of the natural ecosystems on the environment and on the climate. It describes how in the first place the strength of the state governance should be directed to mobilization of the society to overcome the development system failure. It discloses the concept of «form of the future», that is the triune national heritage. Three axioms of the alternative «green» economics are being shown. It is talking about expediency to introduce double-circuit financial system (second circuit — for internal development). New ideological platform is formulated and it is based on ecological imperatives for its embodiment into the new political cycle.
Form of the future, modern capitalism’s development system failure, triune national heritage, concept of biotical regulation in the biosphere, mobilization, «green economy» axioms, double contour financial system, crypto currency «ecological ruble», ideological platform, ecological imperatives.
FORMATION OF CURRENT ARCHITECTURE OF RELATIONS IN SYSTEM OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF STATE PROPERTY: LESSONS FROM HISTORY AND VECTORS OF DEVELOPMENT
Kozlova S.V., Doctor of Economic Sciences, Leading Researcher, Head of the Sector of Institutions and Mechanisms of Public Administration of Federal State Budgetary Institution of Economics of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS),
Bratchenko S.A., Candidate of Economic Sciences, Senior Research Associate of Federal State
Budgetary Institution of Economics of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)
In Russia privatization remains the dominating paradigm of state property management for more then a quarter of century. However, the world practice irrefutably demonstrates the preservation of state property and its serious (though differing in specific countries) role in the modern market economy. It is shown in the article that the beginning of 1990’s were the time when not only conditions for transition to market economy but also many still operating arrangements were set. Some of those arrangements are driving to current low efficiency of companies with state equity participation. But as long as a state exists, there would always be a state property. And a property has to be managed effectively. In particular the authors suggest:
• to refuse the widely adopted 1990’s attitude to state property as to burden to dispose;
• to reveal origins of current insufficient output of state property use;
• to develop alternative mechanisms to manage federal assets.
privatization, right of full economic management, lease, management efficiency, state property, company with state equity participation, state corporations.
RETIREMENT AGE: CRITERIA AND MECHANISMS OF OPTIMIZATION
Roik V.D., ScD (Economics), professor, independent expert
Demographic changes in the age structure and phenomenon of the «aging population», manifested in rapid growth of elderly citizens share in Russia, causes aggravation of financing problem in the pension system and requires transformation of the entire social security system by strengthening its insurance basis. These complex socio-demographic processes and challenges imply developing and implementation of the new generation agreement corresponding to russian realities of the 21st century. Author of the article considers the problem put forward in the headline through the prism of this necessity and taking into account the rich international experience.
pension reform, retirement age, Pension Fund of the Russian Federation, generation agreement, population aging, criteria for justifying retirement, social insurance, social protection.
FEATURES OF RUSSIA’S PARTICIPATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN INTANGIBLE TECHNOLOGIES
Avdeeva O.A., Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Department of international economic relations, School of international business, Omsk State University n.a. F.M. Dostoevsky
The purpose of the research is to identify the peculiarities of Russian Federation participation in international trade in intangible technologies. On the basis of the classification of types of innovation, two main parameters for assessing the country’s participation in international trade in intangible technologies are proposed: the country’s gross domestic expenditure on R & D (GERD) and the country’s technology balance of payments (TBP). The gross domestic expenditure on R & D in the Russian Federation increased 4 times in 2000–2015. However, the share of expenditure on R & D in Russia’s GDP is less then the average value of the corresponding indicator for OECD countries. Nevertheless, the Russian Federation was one of the leaders in terms of GERD in 2014–2015. At the same time, in recent decades, Russia has been having a negative balance of the TBP. Using the method of correlation analysis, the hypothesis of correlation of the GDP with the volume of exports and imports of technologies, as well as with the volumes of GERD was tested. As a result of the correlation analysis, it was proved that there is a direct dependence of GDP on exports and imports of technologies within the TBP, as well as on the volume of gross domestic expenditure of the country on R & D. At the same time, despite the fact that GERD in Russia significantly exceeds the volume of imports, an equally high correlation of GDP with imports and GERD was noted. It was concluded that the devaluation of the ruble against the background of a decline in world oil prices and the imposition of economic sanctions on the Russian Federation led to a significant reduction in the negative balance of the Russian TBP: from –1 695 million dollars in 2013 it fell to –550,7 million dollars in 2015, which is comparable to the volume of the balance of the TBP of the Russian Federation in 2005. At the same time, the problem is requiring additional studies is the possibility of capital flight from the country in the form of contracts for the import of intangible technologies.
International trade in intangible technologies; technology balance of payments; gross domestic expenditure on research and development.
ON POST-BREXIT SCENARIOS
Portanskiy A.P., PhD (Economics), Leading Researcher, IMEMO RAS, Moscow, Russia; Professor, Faculty of World Economy and World Politics, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
After an overview of the UK — EU relations since middle 1970-th the author analysis the Brexit talks between London and Brussels started on June 2017. The article emphasizes that the key issue of negotiations is the future trade agreement. At the same time, the issue of the regime on the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland is very complex. Taking into account the practical absence of the results of bilateral negotiations until the end of summer 2018, the author considers the «no deal» scenario of Brexit as well as the possible economic, social and political consequences of this. The author also draws attention to the fact that since the end of 2017 more than half of the Britons have been expressed against Brexit. At the end of the article brief conclusions are given.
United Kingdom, EU, Brexit, negotiations, trade agreement, no deal Brexit.
ALL-RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DICTATION
ECONOMICS AND LIFE NEWSPAPER TURNS 100 YEARS OLD. CONGRATULATIONS ON THE ANNIVERSARY!